Romeike, P./Nienaber, A./ Schewe, G. (2017). Development and Validation of the Legitimate Monitoring and Control Questionnaire (LMCQ); European Management Journal, 35 (1): 46–59.


In this paper we present the multidimensional Legitimate Monitoring and Control Questionnaire (LMCQ) that is based on social exchange and institutional theory. Our motivation was to develop and validate a widely applicable leadership inventory that accounts for comparable criterion variance as transformational leadership. Whereas transformational leadership scales emphasize charismatic or visionary behavior, the basis for the LMCQ is the belief that perceptions of control legitimacy are essential and lead to high quality social exchange relationships between supervisors and subordinates. To build the dimensions comprising the LMCQ an exploratory study (study 1, 38 respondents) was conducted to investigate which kinds of socio-emotional benefits actually drive subordinates’ perceptions of control legitimacy. The interview data were used to compile an initial item pool that was reduced as a subsequent step (study 2, 494 respondents). Lastly, the resulting measurement instrument representing six dimensions of legitimacy-enhancing supervisory behavior was validated (study 3, 936 respondents).

Back to overview

Prof. Dr. Ann-Marie Nienaber
Professor in Human Resource Management and Organisational Behavior

Head of Research Group: Trust and Workplaces

Coventry University, United Kingdom
(Modern University of the Year 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017)
Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations